Giordano Bruno was burnt at the stake in 1500 for promoting the Copernican idea that the Earth moves round the sun.
He believed some stars have planets with life on them. Bruno said to the Inquisition on his sentence of death 'You have failed'.
1 AU (Astronomical unit) is 149.6 million km.
The Earth is approximately 1 AU from the Sun, being 0.98 AU at perihelion (closest approach) and 1.02 AU at aphelion (most distant approach).
1 parsec = 3 x 10^13 km, being the distance at which the mean radius of the Earth's orbit subtends an angle of 1 second of arc.
0 degrees Kelvin (K) = -273.15 degrees Celsius (C), and differences of temperature in degrees Kelvin are the same as differences for degrees Celsius.
Incident solar radiation is measured in Watts/square meter.
The Local Group comprises more than 54 galaxies, most of them dwarves.
Its gravitational center is located somewhere between the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy.
The Local Group has a diameter of 3.1 Mpc (million parsecs) and has a binary (dumbell) distribution.
The Group is part of the larger Virgo Supercluster, which may be part of the Laniakea Supercluster.
The three largest members of the Group (in descending order) are the Andromeda Galaxy, the Milky Way and the Triangulum Galaxy.
The larger two of these spiral galaxies each have their own system of satellite galaxies.
Our galaxy, the Milky Way
The Milky Way galaxy is a barrel spiral galaxy moving at approximately 600 km/sec with respect to extragalactic frames of reference.
It has 100-400 billion stars and more than 100 billion planets. The oldest stars in the Milky Way are as old as the Universe itself.
It has a radius of 15 kpc (kiloparsec).
The Galactic Center is an intense radio source known as Sagittarius A*, likely a supermassive black hole of 4.1 million solar masses.
Stars and gases orbit at approximately 220 km/sec.
Constant rotation speed violates Keplerian dynamics and suggests the mass of the Milky Way is invisible to our telescopes, neither emmitting nor absorbing
The satellite galaxies orbit from 310 pcs at the edge of the Milky Way to the edge of the Milky Way Halo (3 kpc) from the Galactic Center. Outer satellites
contain copious quantities of gas.
The Sun lies 8 kpc from the galactic center in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way.
Its radius is 0.69 million km, with a surface area of 6.09 x 10^12 square km.
Its mass is 330,000 Earth masses. 99.86% of Solar System mass is in the Sun.
Based on its spectral class, the Sun is a G-type main sequence star (G2V). Not
completely accurately it is a yellow dwarf, but its light is closer to white than yellow.
It is brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way.
The spectrum of the Sun is close to a black body. It has a surface temperature of 5,800 degrees K. It only emits gamma rays from solar flares.
Its atmosphere is 73% hydrogen, 25% helium and includes much smaller amounts of oxygen, carbon, neon and iron.
Its central density is 162 grams per cubic cm.
Its age is 4.6 billion years, and it has not changed dramatically for 4 billion years. It will remain stable for 5 billion years more.
It is 0.72 AU at perihlion and 0.73 at aphelion. Solar radiation is at maximum 2,647 Watts/square meter and at minimum 2,567 Watts/square meter.
The distance from the Earth to the Sun is 149.6 million km = 1AU (astronomical unit).
It is 0.98 AU at perihlion and 1.02 at aphelion. Solar radiation is at maximum 1,413 Watts/square meter and at minimum 1,321 Watts/square meter.
Earth's mass is 5.97 x 10^24 kg.
Sunlight takes 8.3 minutes to reach Earth from the Sun.
Direct sunlight on the Earth at zenith is 1050 Watts/square meter.
The Earth's temperature at the equator is 31 degrees C in the afternoon and 23 degrees C at sunrise.
In Summer, the North Pole is at 0 degrees C and the South Pole at -28.2 degrees C. In Winter, the North Pole is at -40 degrees C and the South Pole at -60 degrees C.
The composition of the Earth's atmosphere is 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1.% Argon. Lower altitudes also have quantities of water vapour.
There are traces of CO2, neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, etc.
Earth pressure at sealevel is 101,325 pascals.
The distance of the Earth to the Moon is 384,400 km.
The mass of the Moon is 7.35 x 10^22 kg.
The distance from Mars to the Sun is 227.9 million km.
It is 1.38 AU at perihlion and 1.67 at aphelion. Solar radiation is at maximum 715 Watts/square meter and at minimum 429 Watts/square meter.
Mars's mass is 6.39 x 10^23 kg.
The composition of the Martian atmosphere is 96% CO2, 1.9% Argon, 1.9% Nitrogen, with traces of free oxygen, carbon monoxide, water and methane.
The Asteroid belt
It is 4.95 AU at perihlion and 5.46 at aphelion. Solar radiation is at maximum 55.8 Watts/square meter and at minimum 45.9 Watts/square meter.
It is 9.05 AU at perihlion and 10.12 at aphelion. Solar radiation is at maximum 16.7 Watts/square meter and at minimum 13.4 Watts/square meter.
Theory: The Milky Way Galaxy I do not accept the centre of a black hole does not exist and is a singularity. All reality exists, and so therefore does the vacuum. If the vacuum does not appear
somewhere in Reality, it is in Unreality, which has another name.
The assumed quantum point at the centre will be a quantum of vacuum. This definitely IS there.
This idea may impact on entropy content in black holes. A new quantum thermodynamics encompasses this quantum vacuum. See the reference to Nambu on
the other site for further details.
Announcement Ladies and Gentlemen of the planet Earth and the destitute like me who seek to save you. I and you are under attack.
This is no usual attack, even a human death or the death of Humanity. It is of wider significance. We think this attack arises from retribution against the star system
Altair by Rigel (which is 5 or 6 stars) and has some ethical systems like our own.
In contradiction of Rigelian ethics, we assert the Quantum Theory of Love states Oneness of Love as a universal theorem so complete it includes all transinfinities
and is Ultimate Oneness itself. The Binary Love/Hate is only a tempory apparition.
The Wonderful Theorem goes beyond all Univeses generated or ungenerated and is Here. We are Its Very Expression and Truth.
It is not to difficult to explain, but 'Unmentionable' that simultaneously the system is directly heading to Insanity and Death.